Various brain in the wire




TOPICS: Bodily harm to themselves or others, waking, regression, anesthesia, resisting artificially induced association, aid to adjustment, personality traits, post hypnotic behavior, out of body experience, plus more.

If the TNT program succeeds, striving to be all you can be may mean learning at a much faster pace, and not just for military personnel. Downloadable learning may be one of the ways we achieve next-level humanity.

Neurotransmission (or synaptic transmission ) is communication between neurons as accomplished by the movement of chemicals or electrical signals across a synapse. For any interneuron, its function is to receive INPUT "information" from other neurons through synapses , to process that information, then to send "information" as OUTPUT to other neurons through synapses . Consequently, an interneuron cannot fulfill its function if it is not connected to other neurons in a network. A network of neurons (or neural network ) is merely a group of neurons through which information flows from one neuron to another. The image below represents a neural network. "Information" flows between the blue neurons through electrical synapses . "Information" flows from yellow neuron A , through blue neuron B , to pink neuron C via chemical synapses .

The human brain has been called the most complex object in the known universe, and in many ways it's the final frontier of science. A hundred billion neurons, close ...

Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering (ISIC), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Strong electric currents may cause a localized lesion in the nervous tissue, instead of a functional reversible stimulation. This property has been used for neurosurgical procedures in a variety of treatments, such as for Parkinson's disease , focal epilepsy and psychosurgery . Sometimes the same electrode is used to probe the brain for finding defective functions, before passing the lesioning current ( electrocoagulation ).

  1. Coat mold with vegetable oil or spray
  2. Add cups of boiling water into jello. Stir and dissolve jello.
  3. Stir in 1 cup of cold water.
  4. Stir in skimmed milk (~2 minutes)
  5. Add a few drops of green food coloring
  6. Pour entire mixture into jello mold
  7. Place mold into refrigerator overnight.
Make the Bones of the Spinal Column (Vertebrae) For grades K-12 The human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column shown. There are 31 segments of the spinal cord and 33 bones (vertebrae) that surround these segments. There are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal vertebrae in the human body. To model these bones, get 33 empty spools of thread (buttons may also work or slices of paper towel holders). Run a string or thread through the middle of one of the spools or buttons. Tie off one end of the string and put the remaining spools or buttons on the string. Each spool (or button) will represent one vertebra. When your model is finished, notice how it can bend. In a real spinal column, the vertebrae are held together by ligaments. Materials:
  • Empty thread spools or buttons
  • String
Read more about the spinal column . Color a Brain For grades K-3 Download or xerox a picture of the brain and color it. Use different colors to color the different lobes of the brain . Materials:
  • Pencils, pens, markers
  • Paper
  • Diagram of the brain
Cap Head...No, it's your Brain! For grades K-12 A great way to introduce the brain. Get a white swimming cap - you know, the kind that pulls on tight over your head. Draw an outline of the brain on the cap with a black marker. To introduce the brain to your class, wear the cap!! It is a great way to start a discussion. You could also draw the lobes of the brain or different areas of the cerebral cortex on your cap with different color markers. Materials:
  • White Swim Cap
  • Black Marker
  • Color Markers
Connect the Dots For grades K-6 This exercise is to illustrate the complexity of the connections of the brain. Draw 10 dots on one side of a piece of paper and 10 dots on the other side of the paper. Assume these dots represent neurons, and assume that each neuron makes connections with the 10 dots on the other side of the paper. Then connect each dot on one side with the 10 dots on the other side. As you can see from the diagram below, it gets very complicated after a while. I have only connected 4 of the "neurons". Remember that this is quite a simplification. Each neuron (dot) may actually make thousands of connections with other neurons. If you tried this your paper would be really messy!! Materials:
  • Pencil, pens, markers
  • Paper
Compare and Contrast For grades K-12 What better model of the brain than a REAL BRAIN!! Try to get "loaner" brains (human and animal) from your local university (try medical schools, Departments of Biology, Zoology, Psychology). Some animal supply companies also sell brains (see the Resource Page ). You may be able to find cow or pig brains at the supermarket or local butcher. Try to get a "Brain Atlas" or look at some pictures of the brains here at Neuroscience for Kids or visit the Mammalian Brain Collection at the University of Wisconsin. This will aid the identification of brain structures. Make sure you wear gloves when handling any specimens. Also be aware that some brains may be perserved with formaldehyde solutions which have an unpleasant odor and also should be handled with care. After you have collected all the specimens: Compare and Discuss:
  1. What are the similarities and differences between the brains?
  2. What are their relative sizes?
  3. Identify areas of the brain. Cortex? Cerebellum? Cranial nerves?
  4. Are their noticeable differences in any particular parts of the brains?
  5. Is the cortex smooth or rough?
  6. Compare placement of the cerebellum and spinal cord.
  7. Compare size of olfactory bulb.
  8. Compare size of cerebral cortex.
  9. Discuss brain weight vs body weight issues.
  10. Discuss brain size and intelligence.
  11. Discuss language and brain size.
  12. Discuss cortical expansion in higher species.
Use a long knife (for LAB USE ONLY!) to make a midsaggital cut (a cut right down the middle, the long way from front to back) to split the brain in half if you want to see internal structures (and if the brains belong to you). Identify and compare internal brain structures using the brain atlases. Some areas of the brain that should be easy to identify are the:
  • corpus callosum
  • thalamus
  • pons
  • inferior and superior colliculus
  • cingulate cortex
  • medulla
  • cerebellum
Try making some sections of the brain. These can be coronal (frontal) sections (across the brain, side to side) to see other brain structures not visible along the midline. Identify and compare what you see. Materials:
  • A brain
  • A long knife (this should only be used inside the lab)
  • Trays (to hold brain specimens)
  • Gloves (for handling specimens)
  • Masks if the odor is strong
  • Brain atlas
  • Pointing devices (popsicle stick, probe, toothpick) to identify structures
Model a Retinal Image Grades 4-12 The brain has a tough job. It is works all the time and the eye has to make things difficult. The convex nature of the lens of the eye turns an image upside down on the retina . The brain must make sense of this and turn it "right-side up". To model what a convex lens does to an image, get a magnifying glass. Find a white wall or tape a white piece of paper to a wall that faces a window. Hold the magnifying glass close (3 in; 10 cm) to the white wall or paper. You should see an inverted image of whatever is outside of the window. This is what is projected onto your retina. Materials:
  • Magnifying glass
  • White Wall or Paper and tape
Read more about the retina . Message Transmission Grades 3-12 Messages can travel in neurons at speeds up to 268 miles/hr! These signals are transmitted from neuron (nerve cell) to neuron across "synapses." Let's make a chain of neurons...have everyone stand up and form a line. Each person in the line is a neuron. As shown in the figure on the right, your left hand are the dendrites of a neuron; your body is the cell body; your right arm is an axon and your right hand is the synaptic terminal. Your right hand should have a small vial of liquid or some other item, such as a button or pebble, to represent neurotransmitters. Each person should be about arms length away from the next person. When the leader says "GO," have the person at the beginning of the line start the signal transmission by placing his or her "neurotransmitter" into the hand of the adjacent person. Once this message is received, this second neuron places its neurotransmitter into the dendrite of the next neuron. The third neuron then places its neurotransmitter into the dendrites of the next neuron and the "signal" travels to the end of the line. The transmission is complete when the "signal" goes all the way to the end of the line. Remember that each "neuron" will pass its own transmitter to the next neuron in line. Each neuron HAS ITS OWN neurotransmitter. Let's review
  • What are the parts of a neuron? The hand that receives the neurotransmitter is the "dendrite." The middle part of your body is the "soma" or "cell body." The arm that passes the neurotransmitter to the next person is the "axon" and the hand that gives the slap is the "synaptic terminal". In between the hands of two people is the "synaptic gap". For more about the parts of a neuron, see cells of the nervous system and the synapse .
  • Measure how long it takes the message to get from the first neuron to the last. Also, measure the distance from the first to the last neuron. Now calculate the speed. How fast did the message travel from first to last neuron? Why do you think the speed of transmission of the model is so slow?
Materials:
  • Stopwatch
  • Vials for neurotransmitters
Saltatory Conduction Grades 3-12 Saltatory conduction is a way that myelinated axons transmit action potentials. Action potentials jump from node to node. To model this, have everyone stand up and form a straight line. Each person should be at arms length of the next person. Give the last person in line a small object like a ball or an eraser. This time, each person does NOT make up an individual neuron. This time, everyone together is a SINGLE neuron and each person is a "myelinated section" of an axon. The space between each person is a node of Ranvier. To start the axon potential, someone should say "go". The first person will slap the hand of the neighboring person, then that person will slap the hand of the next person etc., etc. Remember, in this model, the line of people is just one neuron. When the action potential gets to the last person holding the object, have this person toss the object into the air. This represents the neurotransmitter (the object) floating out into the synaptic cleft (the air). You can also measure the time it takes the signal to move down the axon using a stopwatch. Measure the approximate distance the signal must travel (the total distance of the all the people). If you then divide the distance by the time, you will get the speed (conduction velocity) of the signal. The conduction velocity of this model neuron will most likely be much slower than in the fastest of real neurons (about 268 miles/hr). Don't forget to read more about saltatory conduction Materials: None Action Potential Game Grades 4-12
Game designed by Jessica Koch Objective: Race to raise the resting potential above threshold to fire an action potential . Background: When neurotransmitters cross a synapse, they can bind with receptors on dendrites. This binding can result in a change in the electrical potential of a neuron. An excitatory postsynaptic potential occurs with the neuron becomes depolarized, raising the electrical potential from its baseline of about -70 mV and bringing it closer to threshold and increasing the chance that an action potential will fire. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential occurs when the electrical potential is lowered, making it less likely an action potential will be generated. If the electrical potential is raised so that it reaches the threshold, an action potential will fire down the axon of a neuron.


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